International self-regulatory codes
We support the development of international self-regulatory codes for all marketing and advertising and apply these across our business.
Working through our industry trade bodies, such as the World Federation of Advertisers and the International Chamber of Commerce, we have supported the development of general principles in this area and their integration into advertising and marketing self-regulatory codes and systems around the world.
Unilever Global Principles for Responsible Food and Beverage Marketing
In 2003, we were one of the first companies to apply our own principles to the marketing and advertising of all our food and beverage products. These global Food and Beverage Marketing Principles were rolled out by our Marketing Lawyers Network, our global network of marketing legal experts, in collaboration with our marketing teams. The Principles have been reviewed regularly since 2003 and updates published, the latest being in December 2010.
The Principles require, for example, that our marketing messages are appropriate in the light of obesity issues (such as avoiding the depiction of over-sized portions) and that our marketing materials exclude anything that undermines the promotion of healthy, balanced diets and healthy, active lifestyles, or misrepresents snacks as meals.
Marketing foods & beverages to children
The Principles also contain additional requirements for marketing foods and beverages directed at children. They require that our marketing practices:
do not convey misleading messages
do not undermine parental influence
do not encourage 'pester power'
do not suggest a time/sense of urgency or a price minimisation pressure
do not exploit a child’s imagination or inexperience
do not encourage unhealthy dietary habits
do not blur the boundary between programme or editorial content and commercial promotion.
We have committed to voluntarily restrict all paid marketing communications directed primarily at children under the age of six years. We applied this measure because of increasing evidence showing that children below six do not have the cognitive ability to distinguish between advertising/marketing and programming.
For children under 12 years of age, research has also established a causal relationship between marketing and advertising and their purchasing behaviour and short-term consumption. For children aged 12 and over, this relationship is much less clear.
For this reason we restrict marketing and advertising to children from the ages of six to under 12 for all products except those that meet Unilever’s nutrition criteria. This commitment applies to TV, print advertising, third-party and company-owned websites, where 35% or more of the audience is under the age of 12. This age limit is in line with the definition of a child in the majority of advertising standards in EU member states. Our Principles also limit the use of cartoon characters and celebrities on packaging, labelling and point-of-sale materials to products that meet Unilever’s nutrition criteria.
We do not engage in the promotion of brands or products in primary schools, except where specifically requested or sanctioned by the school administration for educational purposes. This only applies to brands and products which fulfil our nutrition criteria.
See Unilever Global Principles for Responsible Food and Beverage Marketing in Downloads.
Voluntary industry initiatives on responsible marketing ('Pledge Programmes')
In addition to our Global Principles work, since 2008 Unilever has played a major role in promoting industry-wide voluntary initiatives to advocate responsible marketing of foods and beverages to children below 12 years of age. These initiatives, called 'Pledge Programmes', have now been launched in many countries and regions across the world. As of January 2012, Pledge Programmes have been implemented in 21 markets, namely Australia; Brazil; Canada; the EU; Gulf States; Hungary; India; Mexico; New Zealand; Poland; the Philippines; Peru; Portugal; Romania; Russia; Singapore; South Africa; Switzerland; Thailand; Turkey; and the United States.
In 2008, with other member companies of the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA), we committed to the World Health Organization (WHO) that third party auditors would monitor the IFBA members’ marketing and advertising principles. See Downloads for the IFBA Monitoring Report.
Promoting healthy body images
There is much debate around the fashion and marketing industries' portrayal of unrealistic images of beauty through media and advertising. Unilever brands are free to choose the type of model and actor that fits best with the image of the brand, however they are always bound by Unilever’s standards on healthy body images.
In 2007, we adopted a global guideline to prevent the use of 'size zero' models or actors in our advertising to ensure that our advertising does not promote 'unhealthy' slimness. All brand directors and agencies are expected to use models and actors with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of between 18.5 and 25 as a guideline. This is in line with the World Health Organization’s guidance on what level of BMI can be considered healthy.