Reuse. Refill. Rethink. Our progress towards a packaging revolution

We’ve been working on simple, sustainable solutions that will help millions of people cut plastic consumption for good. Here’s what we’ve learnt so far.


The need for an absolute reduction in plastic use is abundantly clear. A recent report by The Pew Charitable Trusts and SYSTEMIQ – ‘Breaking The Plastic Wave’ – found that ocean-bound plastic is set to triple by 2040 unless radical action is taken.

But solutions do exist. The same report found this amount can be reduced by 80% if major transformational change takes place. So, at Unilever, we’re taking action. In 2019, we pledged that by 2025 we would halve the use of virgin plastic in our packaging and remove more than 100,000 tonnes of plastic entirely.

Our starting point has to be design. We’re reducing the amount of plastic we use, and then making sure that what we do use increasingly comes from recycled sources. We’re aiming to ensure that all our plastic packaging is reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025 – and we’re working at an unprecedented speed and intensity to make progress. One solution is refillable, reusable formats, and we’re exploring how to bring those to consumers around the world.

As Chief R&D Officer Richard Slater explains: “To tackle the root causes of plastic waste we need to think differently about packaging. We need bold innovations that challenge existing designs, materials and business models. Our priority is to fundamentally rethink our approach and pave the way for new solutions such as reusable and refillable formats.

“By adopting a ‘test, learn and refine’ mentality, we’ve developed innovative solutions that will help people cut their use of plastic for good,” Richard adds.

We need bold innovations that challenge existing designs, materials and business models. Our priority is to fundamentally rethink our approach and pave the way for new solutions such as reusable and refillable formats.

Richard Slater, Chief R&D Officer, Unilever

New products. New packs. New models.

We’ve appointed dedicated teams to accelerate our work on reusable, refillable formats and we’re investing in pilot programmes all over the world to test their viability. We’ve been learning along the way and refining various models to find out what works for consumers – and for us as a business.

Our partners at the Ellen MacArthur Foundation have outlined four models for refillable and reusable consumer products that we agree have very strong potential. All four approaches are informing the pilot projects we are running. We’re also exploring business-to-business models through Unilever Food Solutions which provides products for the hospitality sector.

  • Refill at home: where consumers can order refills for delivery to their home
  • Refill on the go: where shoppers refill their containers through dispensing systems in stores
  • Return from home: where consumers can arrange for packaging to be collected from their home and refilled
  • Return on the go: where consumers return packaging at a drop-off point, and it is collected and refilled by manufacturers
  • Business-to-business refills and returns: where hospitality sector businesses can order large refills for professional kitchens
A graphic illustrating the five refill-reuse models mentioned. There are four consumer models: refill at home, refill on the go, return from home and return on the go. Unilever Foodsolutions is also introducing a business-to-business model, delivering refills to customers in the hospitality sector. Credit: Ellen MacArthur Foundation.

By making refill and reuse formats widely available, accessible, and affordable, we hope to use our scale and reach to drive lasting change. But we can’t do this alone. There’s strength in numbers, and for this to really make an impact, we need shoppers, retailers and governments to see the benefits.

That’s why, for the first time, we’re sharing what we’ve learnt.

Here are some of the initiatives we’ve been working on.


There’s no one-size-fits-all solution

The case studies above highlight just some of the refill-reuse programmes we’ve been testing around the world, introducing consumers and customers to a new way of choosing, using and reusing packaging. They illustrate some of our work in this space, but are not exhaustive. Additional projects include in-store refills in the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam and France. We’ve also introduced vending machine refills in Sri Lanka, and a number of pilot refill projects in employee stores at Unilever offices around the world.

We’ve learnt that when it comes to refill-reuse, it’s definitely not a case of one-size-fits-all. Different consumers have different needs and wants, which depend on a host of factors. Where they live. How they shop. What they buy. Likewise, different product categories work better on-the-go than at home, and vice versa.

Success depends on tailoring solutions accordingly, removing barriers to entry, and keeping systems as simple as possible.

Our projects have highlighted some clear findings. Here are a few of them.

Nine insights from our work so far…

So, what’s next for Unilever?

The refill and reuse approach is in its early days. We’re all still learning. But experimenting in real-world conditions has given us a lengthy list of insights – and an even lengthier to-do list. Now we want to build momentum and do everything in our power to help bring about a refill-reuse revolution.

Sharing what we’ve learnt is a start, and we hope it will be useful. But global change needs a whole system behind it. We know we can’t do this alone, it requires buy-in from retailers, manufacturers, delivery services, civil society organisations and, of course, consumers. We also see a critical role for governments, especially in helping promote innovation and encouraging investment. We’ll keep collaborating to help make this happen.

Our experiments will also continue. We can see that by keeping things simple, with concentrated refills for example or digital solutions to re-order supplies, we can make changes easier for consumers to adopt, and improve the likelihood of making new habits last.

We have appointed dedicated in-house teams to build expertise, test different approaches and scale up successful pilots. And we’ll keep learning along the way and refining our successes.

We’re rethinking plastic. Will you?

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